Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus occurs when the body cannot produce enough insulin or cannot respond appropriately to insulin. Insulin is a hormone that the body needs to absorb and use glucose (sugar) as fuel for the body’s cells. Without a properly functioning insulin signaling system, blood glucose levels become elevated and other metabolic abnormalities occur, leading to the development of serious, disabling complications. Many forms of diabetes exist. The 3 common types of DM are:

  • Type 2 diabetes, which results from a combination of resistance to the action of insulin and insufficient insulin production
  • Type 1 diabetes, which results when the body loses its ability to produce insulin
  • Gestational diabetes, a common complication of pregnancy. Gestational diabetes can lead to perinatal complications in mother and child and substantially increases the likelihood of cesarean section. Gestational diabetes is also a risk factor for the mother and, later in life, the child’s subsequent development of type 2 diabetes after the affected pregnancy.

This topic is important to discuss because about 28 percent of Americans with DM are undiagnosed, and another 86 million American adults have blood glucose levels that greatly increase their risk of developing type 2 DM in the next several years. Diabetes complications tend to be more common and more severe among people whose diabetes is poorly controlled, which makes DM an immense and complex public health challenge. Preventive care practices are essential to better health outcomes for people with diabetes. 

Diabetes problems that last a long time appear gradually. The longer you have diabetes and the less well you regulate your blood sugar, the more likely you are to have problems. Diabetes problems may become debilitating or even life-threatening in the long run. Complications that may arise include:

  1. Cardiovascular disease.
  2. Nerve Damage
  3. Kidney Damage
  4. Eye Damage
  5. Foot Damage
  6. Skin Conditions
  7. Hearing Impairment

Your chances of developing type 2 diabetes depend on a combination of risk factors such as your genes and lifestyle. Although you can’t change risk factors such as family history, age, or ethnicity, you can change lifestyle risk factors around eating, physical activity, and weight. These lifestyle changes can affect your chances of developing type 2 diabetes. You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you

  • are overweight or obese
  • are age 45 or older
  • have a family history of diabetes
  • are African American, Alaska Native, American Indian, Asian American, Hispanic/Latino, Native Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander
  • have high blood pressure
  • have a low level of HDL (“good”) cholesterol, or a high level of triglycerides
  • have a history of gestational diabetes or gave birth to a baby weighing 9 pounds or more
  • are not physically active


Diabetes. Diabetes | Healthy People 2020. (n.d.). Retrieved January 18, 2022, from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/diabetes 

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.). Risk factors for type 2 diabetes. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Retrieved January 18, 2022, from https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/risk-factors-type-2-diabetes 

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19 hours ago, at 2:25 PM


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Objective topic number three: Arthritis.

Arthritis is a widespread yet misunderstood illness where people think it is a single disease while it is a combination of every joint inflammation disease. It comprises over a hundred conditions with related symptoms that include swelling and pain of the joints and continue to be the leading cause of disability in America. The symptoms may be mild or severe and often come and go but progress with age limits basic movement and can lead to the inability to do ordinary activities. It is common among women, especially the older ones. One should be referred to a rheumatologist or orthopedist who aids in treatment that improves joint mobility (Hyldgaard et al., 2017). 

If arthritis is not looked into at an early stage, it can lead to the total dysfunction of the limbs where one may lack the ability to walk, lift things and may even affect the posture. The most common type of arthritis is osteoarthritis which entails the damage of the cartilage that causes the tearing of the joint lining, which may cause the bones to grind, causing pain and swelling. Rheumatoid arthritis is caused when the body’s immune system attacks the lining of the joints, causing inflammation and swelling (Cantini et al., 2017). 

The ways that can be used to determine the risks of the impact arthritis has on a patient can be determined by the physical function of the joints, whereby in mild scenarios, there are swellings and sore joints. Still, in severe conditions, one may not be able to move or stand, and that condition can become permanent if neglected, and patients are advised to visit the doctor at the earliest stage possible. 


Cantini, F., Niccoli, L., Nannini, C., Cassarà, E., Kaloudi, O., Favalli, E. G., & Goletti, D. (2017). Second-line biologic therapy optimization in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. In Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism (Vol. 47, No. 2, pp. 183-192). WB Saunders.

Hyldgaard, C., Hilberg, O., Pedersen, A. B., Ulrichsen, S. P., Løkke, A., Bendstrup, E., & Ellingsen, T. (2017). A population-

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20 hours ago, at 1:28 PM


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The objective of topic three: Overweight and Obesity

According to the world health organization, obesity and overweight are defined based on Body mass index scale. Therefore, based on this scale, persons with BMI above 25 are considered overweight while those above 30 are considered obese. Obesity and overweight are lifestyle health problems (Obesity, n.d.). Both conditions are caused by the excessive accumulation of fats in the body. Obesity and overweight are clinically significant as they are major predisposing factors to the development of various chronic debilitating conditions that include hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes (Ortega-Loubon et al., 2019). Besides, they also cause skeletal system disorders due to carrying excess weight. They also increase the risk of hospitalization from non-communicable diseases. Due to these reasons, it is crucial to address the prevalence of obesity and overweight issues to enable the public to uncover the evidence-based interventions that they could utilize to keep off from these contributing factors of fatal health conditions.

Obesity and overweight can lead to other secondary complications if not controlled. They can lead to serious health consequences such as heart complications, diabetes, osteoarthritis, and cancers. Obesity is associated with some health complications. However, its ability to cause them depends on the degree and duration of the weight gain (Kyrou et al., 2018). For instance, uncontrolled and excessive accumulation of fats in the body due to obesity and overweight leads to the accumulation of fats in the blood vessels. In return, it results in the narrowing of bloodstreams. The heart is thus forced to apply a lot of pressure to pump blood through the narrow bloodstreams to other body parts (Natsis et al., 2020). It thus contributes to hypertension and cardiac arrest if the contributing factors are not controlled.

 It is thus significant for the office of disease prevention and health promotion to put measures promoting a healthy lifestyle, particularly healthy eating habits (Dietary Guidelines for Americans | Health.Gov, n.d.). In sum, obesity and overweight are public health concerns. They are associated with both economic and health disorders. They should thereby be controlled to reduce the prevalence of the associated secondary complications. The office of disease prevention and health promotion is thus tasked with the core objective of promoting healthy eating behaviors.


Dietary Guidelines for Americans | health.gov. (n.d.). Retrieved January 9, 2022, from https://health.gov/our-work/nutrition-physical-activity/dietary-guidelines

Kyrou, I., Randeva, H. S., Tsigos, C., Kaltsas, G., & Weickert, M. O. (2018). Clinical Problems Caused by Obesity. In K. R. Feingold, B. Anawalt, A. Boyce, G. Chrousos, W. W. de Herder, K. Dhatariya, K. Dungan, J. M. Hershman, J. Hofland, S. Kalra, G. Kaltsas, C. Koch, P. Kopp, M. Korbonits, C. S. Kovacs, W. Kuohung, B. Laferrère, M. Levy, E. A. McGee, … D. P. Wilson (Eds.), Endotext. MDText.com, Inc. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK278973/

Natsis, M., Antza, C., Doundoulakis, I., Stabouli, S., & Kotsis, V. (2020b). Hypertension in Obesity: Novel Insights. Current Hypertension Reviews, 16(1), 30–36. https://doi.org/10.2174/1573402115666190415154603

Obesity. (n.d.). Retrieved January 9, 2022, from https://www.who.int/westernpacific/health-topics/obesity

Ortega-Loubon, C., Fernández-Molina, M., Singh, G., & Correa, R. (2019). Obesity and its cardiovascular effects. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, 35(4), e3135. https://doi.org/10.1002/dmrr.3135

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