Discussion Post

A relation is a collection of tables holding a certain amount of data that matches the programmer’s predefined categories. Each table has a column that fits one or more data categories. For the categories given by the columns, each row includes a single occurrence of data (Aubert, 2019). However, some features make relationships different from tables and files. One of the relation features is ordering tuples, which can be defined as a set of tuples.

No particular order is determined in relation to these tuples as mathematically, elements of a set have no order. On the other side, records in a file are graphically set on a disk to ensure that the record is always in order. The first, second, and last records in the file are represented by this arrangement (Sharma et al., 2018). A row appears in a specific order when we display a relation as a table. Tuple ordering is not included in the definition because a relation aims to express facts logically or abstractly.

Another feature that makes a relation between files and tables is Value order. Values in the tuples are independent and cannot be divided into components within the basic relational model framework, unlike tables and files (Aubert, 2019). A table is resembled by relation, and due to certain constraints, it makes it difficult to exploit the link between two tables in a well-organized manner. Whereas in database schemas, a database relation refers to a single table. The table is a relational database because it stores the relationship between data in a column-row structure.


Aubert, C. (2019). CSCI 3410-Database Systems. Lecture notes. Augusta, Georgia, USA: School of Computer and Cyber Sciences, Augusta University. https://spots. augusta. edu/caub ert/db/ln.

Sharma, T., Fragkoulis, M., Rizou, S., Bruntink, M., & Spinellis, D. (2018, May). Smelly relations: Measuring and understanding database schema quality. In The Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Practice (pp. 55-64).

Discussion Post 2

A relation is a collection of tuples. Sets does not have any orders. As a result, tuples in a relationship are not sorted. It will be equivalent in terms of properties and expressions. A relationship is a logical representation of data. Tables in both formats organise information in rows, with every column carrying a single element of data from a single entry. Because that breaches the most important requirement. If there are duplicated tuples in a relation, we couldn’t uniquely identify individual tuple. If a relation contains more than one key, every one of them should be referred to as a primary key. Because candidates keys identify an individual every tuple in a relation, anyone of them should be designated as the main key. It is preferable to use a primary key with such a specific trait or a small number of characteristics (van Renen et al., 2018).

Relationships are unconcerned about just the sequence of tuples, but regular files and tables need order among some of the data. Domain restrictions require where each tuple include only attribute values. Superkey specifies the authenticity restriction. Two separate tuples in a relation couldn’t have the same Superkey values. Every connection would have had at least single Superkey, which is a collection of all of the other qualities. Due to the obvious originality condition of Superkey, it identifies a particular every tuple in a relation. Mathematical terms, items of something like a set have really no order amongst themselves; similarly, tuples in a relation really had no specific order. Nevertheless, records in a file are visually saved on disc, thus there will always be a sequence as among records.

This arrangement denotes the first, second, and last entries there in file. Whenever we present a relation as either a table, these rows are presented up in a particular sequence. Tuple ordering is not included in the definitions of a relation since a relation aims to describe information at such a logical or abstract degree. A relation can have several logical ordering declared. Multi-valued characteristics must always be described by distinct relations, whereas compound attributes can only be expressed by their basic component attributes. Latest researches inside this relational model aim to overcome these constraints by employing the ideas of no first normalized form and layered relations. The relation schema may be thought of as a proclamation or sort of statement (Montoya et al., 2018).


Montoya, F. G., Alcayde, A., Baños, R., & Manzano-Agugliaro, F. (2018). A fast method for identifying worldwide scientific collaborations using the Scopus database. Telematics and Informatics, 35(1), 168-185.

van Renen, A., Leis, V., Kemper, A., Neumann, T., Hashida, T., Oe, K., … & Sato, M. (2018, May). Managing non-volatile memory in database systems. In Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Management of Data (pp. 1541-1555).

Discussion Post 3

A relation seems to be a table, but it has certain additional constraints that must be met in order to exploit the connection between the two tables in an ordered manner. A file is essentially a collection of records or a table stored on a physical medium. A database relation is just a reference to a specific table in a relational model. The table is a relationship in a relational database because it stores the relationship between data in its column-row format. There cannot be two characteristics with about the same name in a relation (Ko, & Robertazzi, 2008).

Each connection in a database should have its own distinct or special name that distinguishes this from the other relationships in the database. A relation really should not include duplicate itemsets. A table seems to be another word for a relation, however the distinction is that a table is often a commercial packages of rows, but a relation is a collection which does not accept duplicates. Views work similarly to relational tables, except their data is generated at query time. A flat file databases are designed that stores information in one table form. A relational database employs various table architectures, with records being cross-referenced between tables. Tables in both formats organise entries in rows, among each column carrying a single element of data from a single record (Diathesopoulos, 2010).

Despite its complexity, the Windows Registry is indeed not relational. It is indeed a flat file that grows and shrinks when software and hardware were introduced and uninstalled. It maintains track of user data, archives logs, and aids in the rapid retrieval of information. Databases accessible via a shared network can be accessible by a large number of persons seeking for information. Flat file repositories are often not accessible in this manner since those who belong to offline organizations and are part of the mechanism of operational resources and electronic devices. Furthermore, because there are no interactions in a flat file database, it is restricted how much one can perform as a database object. As a result, a flat file database is detrimental to a network user using a multi-access, multi-tasking relational online database (Diathesopoulos, 2010).


Diathesopoulos, M. (2010). The Relation between Essential Facilities Doctrine and Market Definition. SSRN Electronic Journal. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.1732147

Ko, K., & Robertazzi, T. (2008). Signature search time evaluation in flat file databases. IEEE Transactions On Aerospace And Electronic Systems, 44(2), 493-502. doi: 10.1109/taes.2008.4560202

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